Тема: «Виды фундаментов»
Ex. 1. Before you read the text discuss the following questions with your
1. Have you ever seen the process of housing construction?
2. What does this process start from?
3. What is a foundation?
4. What is it used for?
Ex. 2. Read and translate the text «Types of Foundations»:
TYPES OF FOUNDATIONS
The structure of a home is the most fundamental element of the home, a
skeleton of the house. Though building methods varied at times and from region
to region, some basic elements are present in all homes. These include the foun-
dation on which the structure stands, the walls, floors, ceilings, roof framing and
Foundations are considered as the feet of any house. There are basically
four types of foundations used most commonly in residential construction: pile
foundations, continuous or spread footings, foundation walls and mat founda-
Pile Foundations: A pile is a column that transfers the load of the build-
ing to the soil. A beam is placed under each load-bearing wall and the ends of
the beam are then supported on piles. Piles can be made from steel, pressure-
treated wood or concrete. Such foundations are useful for either very “heavy”
buildings, or in regions where the top soil is unstable, prone to erosion etc. The
pile is dug into the earth until a stable soil layer or rock formation is reached.
Another application is in places where spread footings are impossible to con-
struct due to topography (like very steep sloping sites). In such situations, piles
are the only solution.
Continuous or Spread Footings: As the name suggests, these founda-
tions are constructed along the entire length of the wall. The width of the footing
is more than that of the wall. Hence, the load of the structure is “spread” over a
large area. Spread footings are made of concrete. They are placed below the
frost line. Reinforcement steel is used to give strength to concrete in tension. A
variation to the spread footing is the step footing. This is made by creating a
stepped pyramid of brick layers over a large concrete pad. Step footings are
common in many parts of the world.
Foundation Walls: Generally seen in accessible basements, foundation
walls transfer the load of the building to the foundation. Such walls are usually
made of poured concrete, but more commonly, of hollow concrete blocks.
Sometimes brick and stone are also used. The concrete walls are reinforced with steel against the tensile stresses generated due to the top loading (of the structure
above). When steel is used in hollow concrete blocks, concrete must be poured
to hold the steel in place.
Mat Foundations: In certain situations, especially where the natural wa-
ter table is high, a mat or raft foundation is used. This is basically a concrete slab
of the same size as the building. It is reinforced and distributes the load of the
building over the entire area. This is also useful when the soil is uneven and will
settle under focused loads.