Тема: «Виды крыш»
Ex. 1. Before you read the text discuss the following questions with your
1. When did people begin to build houses?
2. What was the purpose of houses construction?
3. What materials did ancient people use for roofing in ancient times?
4. What materials do people use for roofing at present?
Ex. 2. Read the text «Roofs: Types and Parts» and translate it into Rus-
ROOFS: TYPES AND PARTS
One of the most important elements of your house is the roof. A roof is
the covering on the uppermost part of a building. It protects the building and its
contents from the effects of weather: rain, heat, sunlight, cold, snow and wind.
The characteristics of a roof are dependent upon the climate of an area,
the purpose of the building that it covers, the available roofing materials and the
local traditions of construction and wider concepts of architectural design and
practice. Roofs can be sloped, flat or domed. Within these three broad catego-
ries, many variations are possible, for example mansard, hipped, gabled, conical
A sloped or pitched roof is a roof with two slopes that meet at a central
ridge. Sloped roofs prevent buildings from heavy rains and snowfalls. Water can
run down sloped roofs and go down to the drain. A sloped roof can be a simple
or a complex roof form using a combination of different shapes mentioned
Flat roofs are completely different from sloped roofs. These are used in
regions with a low precipitation and dry climate. The traditional materials used
are concrete, brick or adobe. In contrast to the sloped form of a roof, a flat roof
is horizontal or nearly horizontal. Materials that cover flat roofs typically allow
the water to run off freely from a very slight inclination.
Flat roofs tend to be attractive to human traffic. Anything which produces
a crack or puncture in the surface can quite readily lead to leaks. One of the
more interesting emerging methods of protecting the roofing membrane is to use
a layer of topsoil and grasses. Care should be taken not to plant anything the
roots of which will penetrate the membrane surface. The green roof traps mois-
ture on the roof and keeps it up in the soil and plants, but not on the membrane
Parts of a roof
There are two parts of a roof, its supporting structure and its uppermost
The supporting structure of a roof usually comprises beams that are long
and of strong, fairly rigid material such as timber, and since the middle of 19th
century, cast iron or steel. Timber lends itself to a great variety of roof shapes.
The timber structure can fulfill an aesthetic as well as practical function. With
continual improvements in steel girders, these became the major structural sup-
port for large roofs, and eventually for ordinary houses as well. Another form of
girder is the reinforced concrete beam, in which metal rods are encased in con-
crete, giving it greater strength under tension.
Uppermost layer shows great variation depending upon availability of ma-
terial. In simple architecture, roofing material is often vegetation, such as
thatches, sea grass and bamboo with a life of perhaps 40 years. In areas with an
abundance of timber, wooden shingles are used. The slate roof is often consid-
ered the best type of roofing because slate is an ideal and durable material. A
slate roof may last 75 to 150 years, and even longer.
In the 20th century a large number of roofing materials were developed,
including roofs based on bitumen, on rubber and on a range of synthetics such as
thermoplastic and on fiberglass. Since then, many types of metal roofing have
been developed. Steel shingle roofs last about 50 years or more depending on
both the method of installation and the moisture barrier (underlayment) used.