Повторение и обобщение знаний, полученных в ходе изучения тем: Ткани.
Способствовать развитию творческой активности и самостоятельности
Содействие воспитанию профессионально важных личностных качеств обучающихся: чувство ответственности за порученное дело, исполнительности, добросовестности, профессиональной ответственности, чувства долга, чувства самоудовлетворения за хорошо выполненную работу и за правильный выбор профессии.
1.Слова профессиональной направленности выучить.
2.Перевод 2-х текстов 6-ти ( любой из них)
3.Напишите перевод слов по-русски
Нужно знать всё о видах тканей, разбираться в них, это нужно не только для зачета, но и для вашей будущей профессии — портной.
- Слова профессиональной направленности выучить.
|every day wearing-(на каждый день)|
|in the business manner-в деловом стиле)|
|waisted silhouette-(приталенного силуэта)|
|trimmed by (fring, band)-(отделано (бахромой, тесьмой)|
|come out from…-(проходят с…)|
|neckless and sleevness-(без горловины и рукавов)|
|it s on the shoulder straps-(на брительках)|
|if we look at the sleeve-(если мы посмотрим на рукав…)|
2.Перевод 2 текстов из 6-ти (любой из них)
. Fabric.(Textiles). Ткани.(Текстиль)
A sound knowledge of fabrics is absolutely necessary for every person who has something to do with the sewing industry.
Fabrics are to the dressmaker what clay is to the sculptor or steel and stone to the architect — the substance out of which the work of art is created. The story of textiles takes us back to the dawn of history and brings us down through every age and every country of the world. As a matter of fact *, prehistoric man developed a great variety of techniques for making cloth. The making of textiles is one of the very earliest arts of man. At some time and in some place every known vegetable and animal fibre has been twisted into yarn and woven into cloth. Four of these fibres — cotton, linen, wool and silk — are still in use. Modern textiles are not confined only to man-made yarns but also employ the traditional yarns such as cotton, linen, silk and wool. These used in combination with each other, or with man-made materials, present the weaver with almost endless possibilities for new effects
Cotton fabrics are known to be used thousands of years ago. There are two reasons for the popularity of cotton — its low price and its versatility. Cotton being one of the most versatile fibres is used for dresses, underwear, hosiery, blankets, curtains, upholstery, airplane, fabrics, etc. Under the microscope the cotton fibre appears to be a flattened tube with
many twists along its length Because of the natural twist, cotton fibres ma be easily spun into yarn. By the way some cotton fibres having no natun twist are subjected to the process of mercerisation and fabric to b obtained is called mercerised cotton.
Cotton has a high tensile strength. It consists of 90 per cent cellulose and burns very quickly in a manner similar to paper. The cotton fibres conduc heat much more easily than animal fibres do and they have a low electri conductivity. That is why cotton is wound around some electric wires.
Cotton has a natural creamy-white colour. It absorbs water slowly an dries slowly. Cotton doesn’t take dyes so well as the animal fibres do. N special care is needed in laundering cotton. Cotton fibres are not elastic.
Batiste, chintz, damask, marquisette, muslin, organdy, poplin, rep an others are made of cotton.
The word linen comes from the word «lin» meaning «flax». Linei obtained from the flax plant, is, perhaps, the oldest of all the wove materials used for clothing, and it is still best for strength. The linen fibre i derived from the inner bark of the fibre flax plant. It is made up of bundle of colourless, tapering cells. The fibres are constructed with pointed end: Under the microscope flax looks like a bamboo cane. It is stronger tha cotton. Like cotton, flax consits chiefly of cellulose. Linen absorbs water readily and dries more quickly than any other fibn Linen feels smooth, cool, and has a beautiful natural lustre. It is free froi lint and doesn’t stain easily. Bacteria do not live readily on it. Thes hygienic qualities make linen more adaptable for surgical use. It is a goo conductor of heat because air penetrates it readily. However, linens hav little affinity for dyes and they crush and wrinkle very easily. The problei of dying has been solved, and the range of colours has been increased, took not very much time. Linen fabrics may be made into table linen. laces, sheeting, toweling, clothing, sewing threads, shoe threads, eti because of its strength, good quality linen is a very durable fibre and wi
wear long. It is readily refreshed by washing, and ironing can be done at a some what higher temperature that cotton.
The silk industry originated in China, where its secrets were guarded jealously.
Silk is a natural fibre, it is long, smooth and strong. The elasticity of silk helps to keep the fabrics from wrinkling and makes the materials drape well. The silk filament is from 300 yards to 850 yards long. This naturally helps in the spinning of the yarn into the finished product of fabric.
Silk being a long, smooth filament does not soil easily. It is a delight to wear it because of its lightness and smooth surface. Silk is the most durable and the strongest textile known. Owing to the length of its fibres, silk sheds dirt and bacteria very easily.
Since this textile ranks next to wool as a non-conductor of heat, it is excellent for warmth. The beautiful appearance of silk fabrics, their lustre, and their affinity for dyes, all help to make them suitable for people with fine tastes.
Silk may be laundered or dry-cleaned in the same way as other fabrics are. White silk, however, will turn yellow from strong soaps. Therefore in washing white silk use soft water and plenty of lukewarm suds.
The uses of silk are as varied as its advantages, as may be seen by a glance over the following list: women’s dresses, blouses, shirts, hats, ribbons, hosiery, bathing suits, typewriter ribbons, etc.
Wool was used for clothing thousands of years ago. If we look around, we shall see how many people wear wool in one form or another — dresses, coats, overcoats, cardigans and many other articles. In the twentieth century the use of wool began to spread to the Far East where previously only silk and cotton were used.
Everybody knows wool to be used in warm and tropical countries as well as cold ones, because it has a wonderful power of absorbing moisture and keeping the skin dry. But what is wool7 St is known to be a kind of hair found on sheep, differing from other hair in being crimpy, curly and soft. Through a microscope the wool fibre appears to be wavy and to have tiny overlapping scales. Wool is the most elastic fibre and it resists wrinkles and creases. It is thermostatic and its fibres act as a natural regulator of body temperature. This thermostatic action protects against heat as well as against cold. Wool is also absorbent and porous being fire-resistant and resilient. This is an important reason why wool fabrics hold their shape, drape gracefully, do not wrinkle easily and are easy to care for. Wool is divided into two main classes which are determined by the length of the fibres. Combing or long-staple wools are those with fibres 214 inches in length used in the manufacture of worsteds. Short-staple wools include all those with fibres less than 214 inches length. These are used in the manufacture of woolens.
Worsted fabrics have a special lustre and clear-cut surface which gives them a distinctly smart appearance.
In order to produce this smooth surface only the best and longest wool fibres can be used. The worsteds cost more than the woolens. Worsted stands hard wear on account of high tensile strength, due to long fibres and the twist in the yarn. Being elastic worsted holds its shape perfectly well.
Because silk was desirable but costly, many attempts were made to create it artificially. The most popilar way of manufacturing rayon is by the viscose process. Rayon is known to be a man-made fibre. It is composed of wood pulp which is a form of cellulose converted into a thread formation by means of chemical and mechanical processes. Rayon is a textile yarn or thread made by forcing a liquid solution of cellulose through a spinneret and coagulating it as a solid fibre.
The smooth slippery surface of rayon is resistant to friction. Other fabrics do not stick to rayon. This makes it particularly desirable for underwear Rayon is more resistant to perspiration than other fibres. It absorbs
perspiration, keeping the skin dry and comfortable. Rayon does not provide a favourable medium for the growth of bacteria. Rayons are not so strong as silks. It has less elasticity than silk and it creases more easily. In order to overcome this defect resins are added. Rayon is now of unquestionable importance in the fabric world. It is used to supplement the defects of the materials such as cotton, linen, wool, and give them a new style significance, as for example when it is combined with linen to make it less crushable Rayon fabrics take dyes just as well as cotton. Rayon turns up in hosiery, sport and dress fabrics, tablecloths and linings.
In the mid-twentieth century man had found out how to make a fabric out of coal, air and water. Nylon is one of the synthetics. Nylon is a fibre in which the very molecules composing it are man-made. It is a true synthetic.
Nylon is composed of four elements: carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen. The basic raw materials are a hydrocarbon abtained from coal, petroleum, or natural gas; nitrogen and oxygen from the air; and hydrogen from water.
The process of nylon’s treatment is complex. All above mentioned substances are treated so that they form a solution which is forced through tiny holes in the spineret.
Nylon is smooth, strong, elastic and light in weight. It absorbs very little moisture and dries quickly. Nylon is known to be used for hosiery, undergarments and some dresses. Fabrics made of nylon do not need to be pressed so often. The introduction of the man-made fibres has brought a multiplicity of new names.
3.Напишите перевод слов по-русски
- every day wearing
- in the business manner
- waisted silhouette
- trimmed by (fring, band)
- come out from
- neckless and sleevness
- it s on the shoulder straps
- if we look at the sleeve